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1/8/2019 21:44

ss -ntl # tcp port
ss -nul # udp port

ss -nul4 # udp port  -ipv4
ss -nul6 # udp port -ipv6

http://www.ttlsa.com/linux-command/ss-replace-netstat/
ss命令用于显示socket状态. 他可以显示PACKET sockets, TCP sockets, UDP sockets, DCCP sockets, RAW sockets, Unix domain sockets等等统计. 它比其他工具展示等多tcp和state信息. 它是一个非常实用、快速、有效的跟踪IP连接和sockets的新工具.SS命令可以提供如下信息:

所有的TCP sockets
所有的UDP sockets
所有ssh/ftp/ttp/https持久连接
所有连接到Xserver的本地进程
使用state(例如:connected, synchronized, SYN-RECV, SYN-SENT,TIME-WAIT)、地址、端口过滤
所有的state FIN-WAIT-1 tcpsocket连接以及更多
很多流行的Linux发行版都支持ss以及很多监控工具使用ss命令.熟悉这个工具有助于您更好的发现与解决系统性能问题.本人强烈建议使用ss命令替代netstat部分命令,例如netsat -ant/lnt等.

展示他之前来做个对比,统计服务器并发连接数

netstat

time netstat -ant | grep EST | wc -l

3100

real 0m12.960s
user 0m0.334s
sys 0m12.561s

time ss -o state established | wc -l

3204

real 0m0.030s
user 0m0.005s
sys 0m0.026s

netstat

time netstat -ant | grep EST | wc -l

3100

real 0m12.960s
user 0m0.334s
sys 0m12.561s

time ss -o state established | wc -l

3204

real 0m0.030s
user 0m0.005s
sys 0m0.026s
结果很明显ss统计并发连接数效率完败netstat,在ss能搞定的情况下, 你还会在选择netstat吗, 还在犹豫吗, 看以下例子,或者跳转到帮助页面.

常用ss命令:

ss -l 显示本地打开的所有端口
ss -pl 显示每个进程具体打开的socket
ss -t -a 显示所有tcp socket
ss -u -a 显示所有的UDP Socekt
ss -o state established ‘( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )’ 显示所有已建立的SMTP连接
ss -o state established ‘( dport = :http or sport = :http )’ 显示所有已建立的HTTP连接
ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/* 找出所有连接X服务器的进程
ss -s 列出当前socket详细信息:
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ss -l 显示本地打开的所有端口
ss -pl 显示每个进程具体打开的socket
ss -t -a 显示所有tcp socket
ss -u -a 显示所有的UDP Socekt
ss -o state established ‘( dport = :smtp or sport = :smtp )’ 显示所有已建立的SMTP连接
ss -o state established ‘( dport = :http or sport = :http )’ 显示所有已建立的HTTP连接
ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/* 找出所有连接X服务器的进程
ss -s 列出当前socket详细信息:
显示sockets简要信息
列出当前已经连接,关闭,等待的tcp连接

ss -s

Total: 3519 (kernel 3691)
TCP: 26557 (estab 3163, closed 23182, orphaned 194, synrecv 0, timewait 23182/0), ports 1452

Transport Total IP IPv6
* 3691 – –
RAW 2 2 0
UDP 10 7 3
TCP 3375 3368 7
INET 3387 3377 10
FRAG 0 0 0
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ss -s

Total: 3519 (kernel 3691)
TCP: 26557 (estab 3163, closed 23182, orphaned 194, synrecv 0, timewait 23182/0), ports 1452

Transport Total IP IPv6
* 3691 – –
RAW 2 2 0
UDP 10 7 3
TCP 3375 3368 7
INET 3387 3377 10
FRAG 0 0 0
列出当前监听端口

ss -l

Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:Port
0 10 :::5989 :::*
0 5 :rsync *:
0 128 :::sunrpc :::*
0 128 :sunrpc *:
0 511 :http *:
0 128 :::ssh :::*
0 128 :ssh *:
0 128 :::35766 :::*
0 128 127.0.0.1:ipp :
0 128 ::1:ipp :::*
0 100 ::1:smtp :::*
0 100 127.0.0.1:smtp :
0 511 :https *:
0 100 :::1311 :::*
0 5 :5666 *:
0 128 :3044 *:
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ss -l

Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port Peer Address:Port
0 10 :::5989 :::*
0 5 :rsync *:
0 128 :::sunrpc :::*
0 128 :sunrpc *:
0 511 :http *:
0 128 :::ssh :::*
0 128 :ssh *:
0 128 :::35766 :::*
0 128 127.0.0.1:ipp :
0 128 ::1:ipp :::*
0 100 ::1:smtp :::*
0 100 127.0.0.1:smtp :
0 511 :https *:
0 100 :::1311 :::*
0 5 :5666 *:
0 128 :3044 *:
ss列出每个进程名及其监听的端口

ss -pl

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ss -pl

ss列所有的tcp sockets

ss -t -a

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ss -t -a

ss列出所有udp sockets

ss -u -a

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ss -u -a

ss列出所有http连接中的连接

ss -o state established ‘( dport = :http or sport = :http )’

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ss -o state established ‘( dport = :http or sport = :http )’

·以上包含对外提供的80,以及访问外部的80
·用以上命令完美的替代netstat获取http并发连接数,监控中常用到

ss列出本地哪个进程连接到x server

ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/*

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ss -x src /tmp/.X11-unix/*

ss列出处在FIN-WAIT-1状态的http、https连接

ss -o state fin-wait-1 ‘( sport = :http or sport = :https )’

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ss -o state fin-wait-1 ‘( sport = :http or sport = :https )’

ss常用的state状态:

established
syn-sent
syn-recv
fin-wait-1
fin-wait-2
time-wait
closed
close-wait
last-ack
listen
closing
all : All of the above states
connected : All the states except for listen and closed
synchronized : All the connected states except for syn-sent
bucket : Show states, which are maintained as minisockets, i.e. time-wait and syn-recv.
big : Opposite to bucket state.
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established
syn-sent
syn-recv
fin-wait-1
fin-wait-2
time-wait
closed
close-wait
last-ack
listen
closing
all : All of the above states
connected : All the states except for listen and closed
synchronized : All the connected states except for syn-sent
bucket : Show states, which are maintained as minisockets, i.e. time-wait and syn-recv.
big : Opposite to bucket state.
ss使用IP地址筛选

ss src ADDRESS_PATTERN
src:表示来源
ADDRESS_PATTERN:表示地址规则

如下:
ss src 120.33.31.1 # 列出来之20.33.31.1的连接

# 列出来至120.33.31.1,80端口的连接
ss src 120.33.31.1:http
ss src 120.33.31.1:80
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ss src ADDRESS_PATTERN
src:表示来源
ADDRESS_PATTERN:表示地址规则

如下:
ss src 120.33.31.1 # 列出来之20.33.31.1的连接

# 列出来至120.33.31.1,80端口的连接
ss src 120.33.31.1:http
ss src 120.33.31.1:80
ss使用端口筛选

ss dport OP PORT
OP:是运算符
PORT:表示端口
dport:表示过滤目标端口、相反的有sport
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ss dport OP PORT
OP:是运算符
PORT:表示端口
dport:表示过滤目标端口、相反的有sport
OP运算符如下:

<= or le : 小于等于 >= or ge : 大于等于
== or eq : 等于
!= or ne : 不等于端口
< or lt : 小于这个端口 > or gt : 大于端口
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<= or le : 小于等于 >= or ge : 大于等于
== or eq : 等于
!= or ne : 不等于端口
< or lt : 小于这个端口 > or gt : 大于端口
OP实例

ss sport = :http 也可以是 ss sport = :80
ss dport = :http
ss dport > :1024
ss sport > :1024
ss sport \< :32000
ss sport eq :22
ss dport != :22
ss state connected sport = :http
ss ( sport = :http or sport = :https )
ss -o state fin-wait-1 ( sport = :http or sport = :https ) dst 192.168.1/24
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ss sport = :http 也可以是 ss sport = :80
ss dport = :http
ss dport > :1024
ss sport > :1024
ss sport \< :32000
ss sport eq :22
ss dport != :22
ss state connected sport = :http
ss ( sport = :http or sport = :https )
ss -o state fin-wait-1 ( sport = :http or sport = :https ) dst 192.168.1/24
为什么ss比netstat快:
netstat是遍历/proc下面每个PID目录,ss直接读/proc/net下面的统计信息。所以ss执行的时候消耗资源以及消耗的时间都比netstat少很多

ss命令帮助

ss -h

Usage: ss [ OPTIONS ]
ss [ OPTIONS ] [ FILTER ]
-h, –help this message
-V, –version output version information
-n, –numeric don’t resolve service names
-r, –resolve resolve host names
-a, –all display all sockets
-l, –listening display listening sockets
-o, –options show timer information
-e, –extended show detailed socket information
-m, –memory show socket memory usage
-p, –processes show process using socket
-i, –info show internal TCP information
-s, –summary show socket usage summary

-4, –ipv4 display only IP version 4 sockets
-6, –ipv6 display only IP version 6 sockets
-0, –packet display PACKET sockets
-t, –tcp display only TCP sockets
-u, –udp display only UDP sockets
-d, –dccp display only DCCP sockets
-w, –raw display only RAW sockets
-x, –unix display only Unix domain sockets
-f, –family=FAMILY display sockets of type FAMILY

-A, –query=QUERY, –socket=QUERY
QUERY := {all|inet|tcp|udp|raw|unix|packet|netlink}[,QUERY]

-D, –diag=FILE Dump raw information about TCP sockets to FILE
-F, –filter=FILE read filter information from FILE
FILTER := [ state TCP-STATE ] [ EXPRESSION ]
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ss -h

Usage: ss [ OPTIONS ]
ss [ OPTIONS ] [ FILTER ]
-h, –help this message
-V, –version output version information
-n, –numeric don’t resolve service names
-r, –resolve resolve host names
-a, –all display all sockets
-l, –listening display listening sockets
-o, –options show timer information
-e, –extended show detailed socket information
-m, –memory show socket memory usage
-p, –processes show process using socket
-i, –info show internal TCP information
-s, –summary show socket usage summary

-4, –ipv4 display only IP version 4 sockets
-6, –ipv6 display only IP version 6 sockets
-0, –packet display PACKET sockets
-t, –tcp display only TCP sockets
-u, –udp display only UDP sockets
-d, –dccp display only DCCP sockets
-w, –raw display only RAW sockets
-x, –unix display only Unix domain sockets
-f, –family=FAMILY display sockets of type FAMILY

-A, –query=QUERY, –socket=QUERY
QUERY := {all|inet|tcp|udp|raw|unix|packet|netlink}[,QUERY]

-D, –diag=FILE Dump raw information about TCP sockets to FILE
-F, –filter=FILE read filter information from FILE
FILTER := [ state TCP-STATE ] [ EXPRESSION ]
参考:http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/linux-investigate-sockets-network-connections.html
转摘请注明出处:Linux网络状态工具ss命令详解 http://www.ttlsa.com/html/2070.html

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